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Table 1 The three inquiry-based activities

From: Teacher views on inquiry-based learning: the contribution of diverse experiences in the outdoor environment

  Scientific practices Social structure Examples of activities
Ecology investigation Sociological investigation Archeological investigation
Preparation (online) Asking questions
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Planning and carrying out investigations
Individual Analyzing maps Reading abstracts of social science studies and identifying their characteristics Reading about the differences between history and archeology
Reading an excavation report to learn about methods
Group Reading background materials on ecological methods and suggesting initial research questions
Designing the group’s study: data collection instruments
Reading about the villages, summarizing the information in a collaborative presentation, and asking inquiry questions to study one or both villages Arranging findings by archeological periods
Field investigation Planning and carrying out investigations Individual Guided observation on the ecological investigation site Meeting with community representatives and getting background information Archeological survey
Archeological excavation
Group Identifying interesting phenomena and refining the questions; asking more questions and discussing hypotheses; describing the area, photographing
Consistent measuring of abiotic and biotic factors
Collecting data using questionnaires, interviews, and observations in the communities
Photographing and documenting the village environments
Logging the data in a collaborative database
Photographing and documenting
Wrap-up (online) Analyzing and interpreting data
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Constructing explanations.
Engaging in argument from evidence
Group Comparing habitats, quantitative graphical representations
Writing conclusions
Creating a collaborative e slide presentation
Identifying cultural characteristics, conflicts, identities
Designing scientific poster or a conference abstract to communicate results
Using typological map to arrange the artifacts
Data analysis and writing explanations
Designing and making a video-clip to present the twofold study
Individual Critiquing other groups’ presentations and writing feedback (peer review)
Writing reflections based on prompts
Peer review of the abstracts and posters
Writing reflections based on prompts
Peer review of the video-clips
Writing reflections based on prompts