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Table 3 Characterizing connections between disciplines

From: The S-T-E-M Quartet

Connections between disciplines Description
S–T Application appropriate technological tools to seek causality or to investigate relationships between different variables
Application technological tools to automate or increase accuracy of evidence collected
Application technology to create simulations or create models to represent scientific phenomena
S–E Application conceptual knowledge and models of science to seek understanding of the functions of design
Application of scientific knowledge to search for better outcomes
Application of evidence from scientific inquiry to inform and interpret success of solutions
S–M Application of mathematical models to share and evaluate scientific knowledge and models
Using mathematical formulation to seek understanding of scientific phenomena
Application of mathematical tools to represent data collected during scientific investigations
T–E Construction of models or prototypes using technologies for a specific purpose or product
Application of engineering design to create or enhance technological solutions
Application of technological tools to evaluate and inform engineering solutions
T–M Application of mathematical models to create technological algorithms
Application of technological tools to create mathematical models using large data
Application of technological tools to interpret complex mathematical issues to transform them from raw to refined, simple to complex and ill-defined to well-defined (Morrison-Love 2017)
E–M Application of precision from mathematical computation in the design of solutions
Application of patterns and regularity in reasoning to define and justify designs
Application of mathematical tools to collect data to search for refinement and improvement of design